导航与控制 ›› 2020, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (4/5): 237-245.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-5558.2020.h4.027

• 传感器与执行机构 • 上一篇    下一篇

惯性仪表精度漂移的材料问题与尺寸稳定性复合材料设计

武高辉, 宫灯, 乔菁, 姜龙涛   

  1. 哈尔滨工业大学材料科学与工程学院,哈尔滨 150001
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-17 出版日期:2020-10-05 发布日期:2020-12-22
  • 作者简介:武高辉,男,博士,哈尔滨工业大学教授,长期从事惯性器件材料尺寸稳定性研究和金属基复合材料研究,是我国上述领域的著名专家,发明了模拟陀螺仪多次启动条件的材料微纳变形的测试方法、磁钢磁电性能长期稳定性检测方法、仪表级和光学级复合材料高品质制备方法等新方法和新技术,发明了稳定化处理工艺和新型复合材料20余种,获发明专利104项,发表论文300余篇,研究成果支撑了20余个国防型号的研制和列装。

Material Problem of Inertial Instrument Precision Drift and the Design of High Dimensional Stability Composites

WU Gao-hui, GONG Deng, QIAO Jing, JIANG Long-tao   

  1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001
  • Received:2020-03-17 Online:2020-10-05 Published:2020-12-22

摘要: 陀螺、加速度计等惯性器件是高精度传感器,对零件的微小变形有着极其敏感的反应。因此,惯性器件材料的尺寸稳定性问题一直是提高精度的关键。作者长期研究发现,惯性仪表精度及其稳定性在结构设计确定的情况下与加工、装配有关,但是本质性的因素是材料在长期温度扰动下的“变形”“变性”“变质”问题。我国关于惯性器件材料尺寸稳定性的研究十分薄弱,材料与工艺技术已经成为制约仪表精度的“卡脖子”问题。本文重点介绍了材料“变形”即在温度扰动下微纳变形的研究结果。首先分析了惯性器件的服役环境以及该服役环境下的材料响应,从而提出复合材料尺寸稳定性设计的基本原理。通过材料设计,为解决低频谐振、复杂结构热应力变形、动载荷弹性变形、长期静载荷微纳米级变形、长期储存下材料时效自发变形等问题提供了有效的材料设计方案。设计制备的仪表级SiC/Al复合材料在核心关键指标上优于铍材,在“高新工程”、“北斗工程”等重大工程中显示出优异的技术效果。

关键词: 惯性器件, 铝基复合材料, 尺寸稳定性, 稳定化处理, 铍材

Abstract: Inertial devices such as gyroscopes and accelerometers are high-precision sensors that have extremely sensitive reactions to small deformations of parts. Therefore, the dimensional stability of inertial device materials has always been the key to improving accuracy. Long-term research by the authors indicated that the accuracy and stability of inertial instruments are related to processing and assembly when the structural design is determined but the essential factor is the ‘deformation’, ‘denaturation’ and ‘metamorphic’ of materials under long-term temperature disturbances. China is lack of research on the dimensional stability of inertial device materials. Materials and process technology have therefore become the stranglehold that restricts the accuracy of the instrument. This paper focuses on the deformation of material, namely micro-nano deformation under temperature disturbance. Firstly, the service environment of the inertial device and the material response in the service environment are analyzed, and the basic principle of the dimensional stability design of the composite is proposed. High dimensional stability ‘instrument’ grade SiC/Al composites is obtained by designing the elastic modulus, expansion coefficient, micro-yield strength, matrix alloy phase stability, composite stress stability design and ease of processing. Instrument-grade composite materials have been successfully applied in major projects such as ‘High-tech Engineering’ and ‘Beidou Project’, which solves the technical problems of low-frequency resonance, thermal stress matching of composite parts, resistance to stress overload, and dimensional stability under long-term service.

Key words: inertial device, Aluminum matrix composite, dimensional stability, stabilization treatment, Beryllium

中图分类号: